From Classic Encyclopedia 1911
DYNAMOMETER (Gr. & y aws, strength, and ,uETpov, a measure), an instrument for measuring force exerted by men, animals and machines. The name has been applied generally to all kinds of instruments used in the measurement of a force, as for example electric dynamometers, but the term specially denotes apparatus used in connexion with the measurement of work, or in the measurement of the horse-power of engines and motors. If P represent the average value of the component of a force in the direction of the displacement, s, of its point of application, the product Ps measures the work done during the displacement. When the force acts on a body free to turn about a fixed axis only, it is convenient to express the work done by the transformed product TO, where T is the average turning moment or torque acting to produce the displacement 0 radians. The apparatus used to measure P or T is the dynamometer. The factors s or 0 are observed independently. Apparatus is added to some dynamometers by means of which a curve showing the variations of P on a distance base is drawn automatically, the area of the diagram representing the work done; with others, integrating apparatus is combined, from which the work done during a given interval may be read off directly. It is convenient to distinguish between absorption and transmission dynamometers. In the first kind the work done is converted into heat; in the second it is transmitted, after measurement, for use.
Baron Prony's dynamometer (Ann. Chim. Phys. 1821, vol. 19), which has been modified in various ways, consists in its original form of two symmetrically shaped timber beams clamped to the engine-shaft. When these are held from turning, their frictional resistance may be adjusted by means of nuts on the screwed bolts which hold them together until the shaft revolves at a given speed. To promote smoothness of action, the rubbing surfaces are lubricated. A weight is moved along the arm of one of the beams until it just keeps the brake steady midway between the stops which must be provided to hold it when the weight fails to do so. The general theory of this kind of brake is as follows: - Let F be the whole frictional resistance, r the common radius of the rubbing surfaces, W the force which holds the brake from turning and whose line of action is at a perpendicular distance R from the axis of the shaft, N the revolutions of the shaft per minute, co its angular velocity in radians per second; then, assuming that the adjustments are made so that the engine runs steadily at a uniform speed, and that the brake is held still, clear of the stops and without oscillation, by W, the torque T exerted by the engine is equal to the frictional torque Fr acting at the brake surfaces, and this is measured by the statical moment of the weight W about the axis of revolution; that is T =Fr=WR... (I) Hence WR measures the torque T.
If more than one force be applied to hold the brake from turning, Fr. and therefore T, are measured by the algebraical sum of their individual moments with respect to the axis. If the brake is not balanced, its moment about the axis must be included. Therefore, quite generally, T= EWR.. .. .. (2) The factor 0 of the product TO is found by means of a revolution counter. The power of a motor is measured by the rate at which it works, and this is expressed by Tw =T 60N in foot-pounds per second. or T21rN in horse-power units. The latter is commonly referred to as the " brake horse-power." The maintenance of the conditions of steadiness implied in equation (I) depends upon the constancy of F, and therefore of the coefficient of friction µ between the rubbing surfaces. The heating at the surfaces, the variations in their smoothness, and the variations of the lubrication make continuously variable, and necessitate frequent adjustment of W or of the nuts. J. V. Poncelet (1788-1867) invented a form of Prony brake which automatically adjusted its grip as µ changed, thereby maintaining F constant.
The principle of the compensating brake devised by J. G. Appold (1800-1865) is shown in fig. i. A flexible steel band, lined with wood blocks, is gripped on the motor fly-wheel or pulley by a screw A, which, together with W, is adjusted to hold the brake steady. Compensation is effected by the lever L inserted at B. This has a slotted end, engaged by a pin P fixed to the framing, and it will be seen that its action is to slacken the band if the load tends to rise and to tighten it in the contrary case. The external forces holding the brake from turning are W, distant R from the axis, and the reaction, W 1 say, of the lever against the fixed pin P, distant R1 from the axis. The moment of W 1 may be positive or negative.
The torque T at any instant of steady running is therefore I WR Lord Kelvin patented a brake in 1858 (fig. 2) consisting of a rope or cord wrapped round the circumference of a rotating wheel, to one end of which is applied a regulated force, the other end being fixed to a spring balance. The ropes are spaced laterally by the blocks B, B, B, B, which also serve to prevent them from slipping sideways. When the wheel is turning in the direction indicated, the forces holding the band still are W, and p, the observed pull on the spring balance. Both these forces usually act at the same radius R, the distance from the axis to the centre line of the rope, in which case the torque T is (W-p)R, and consequently the brake horse-power is (W - p)RX21rN, When µ 33,000 changes the weight W rises or falls against the action of the spring balance until a stable condition of running is obtained. The ratio p is given by e"` e , where e= 2.718; µ is the coefficient of friction and 0 the angle, measured in radians,, subtended by the arc of contact between the rope and the wheel. In fig. 2 0=27r. The ratio W/p increases very rapidly as 0 is increased,, and therefore, by making 0 sufficiently large, p may conveniently be made a small fraction of W, thereby rendering errors of observation of the spring balance negligible. Thus this kind of brake, though cheap to make, is, when 0 is large enough, an exceedingly accurate measuring instrument, readily applied and easily controlled. It has come into very general use in recent years, and has practically superseded the older forms of block brakes.
It is sometimes necessary to use water to keep the brake wheel cool. Engines specially designed for testing are usually provided with a brake wheel having a trough-shaped rim. Water trickles continuously into the trough, and the centrifugal action holds it as an inside lining against the rim, where it slowly evaporates.
Fig. 3 shows a band-brake invented by Professor James Thomson, suitable for testing motors exerting a constant torque (see Engineering, 22nd October 1880). To maintain e µe constant, compensation for variation of µ is made by inversely varying 0. A and B are fast and loose pulleys, and the brake band is placed partly over the one and partly over the other. Weights W and w are adjusted to the torque. The band turns with the fast pulley if µ increase, thereby slightly turning the loose pulley, otherwise at rest, until 0 is adjusted to the new value of µ. This form of brake was also invented independently by J. A. M. L. Carpentier, and the principle has been used in the Raffard brake. A self-compensating brake of another kind, by Marcel Deprez, was described with Carpentier's in 1880 (Bulletin de la societe d'encouragement, Paris). W. E. Ayrton and J. Perry used a band or rope brake in which compensation is. effected by the pulley drawing in or letting out a part of the band or rope which has been roughened or in which a knot has been tied.
In an effective water-brake invented by W. Froude (see Proc. Inst. M. E. 1877), two similar castings, A and B, each consisting.
of a boss and circumferential annular channel, are placed face to face on a shaft, to which B is keyed, A being free (fig. 4). A ring tube of elliptical section is thus formed. Each channel is divided into a series of pockets by equally spaced vanes inclined at 45°. When A is held still, and B rotated, centrifugal action sets up vortex currents in the water in the pockets; thus a continuous circulation is caused between B and A, and the consequent changes of momentum give rise to oblique reactions. The moments of the components of these actions and reactions in a plane to which the axis of rotation is at right angles are the two aspects of the torque acting, and therefore the torque acting on B through the shaft is measured by the torque required to hold A still. Froude constructed a brake to take up 2000 H.P. at 90 revs. per min. by duplicating this apparatus. This replaced the propeller of the ship whose engines were to be tested, and the outer casing was held from turning by a suitable arrangement of levers carried to weighing apparatus conveniently disposed on the wharf. The torque corresponding to 2000 H.P. at 90 revs. per min. is 116,772 foot-pounds, and a brake 5 ft. in diameter W gave this resistance. Thin metal FIG. 3. sluices were arranged to slide be tween the wheel and casing, and by their means the range of action could be varied from 300 H.P. at 120 revs. per min. to the maximum.
Professor Osborne Reynolds in 1887 patented a water-brake (see Proc. Inst. C.E. 99, p. 167), using Froude's turbine to obtain the highly resisting spiral vortices, and arranging passages in the casing for the entry of water at the hub of the wheel and its exit at the circumference. Water enters at E (fig. 5), and finds its way into the interior of the wheel, A, driving the air in front of it through the airpassages K, K. Then following into the pocketed chambers V,, V2, it is caught into the vortex, and finally escapes at the circumference, flowing away at F. The air-ways k, k, in the fixed vanes establish communication between the cores of the vortices and the atmosphere. From to 30 H.P. may be measured at loo revs. per min. by a brake-wheel of this kind 18 in. in diameter. For other speeds the power varies as the cube of the speed. The casing is held from turning by weights hanging on an attached arm. The cocks regu FIG. 4.
lating the water are connected to the casing, so that any tilting automatically regulates the flow, and therefore the thickness of the film in the vortex. In this way the brake may be arranged to maintain a constant torque, notwithstanding variation of the speed. In G. I. Alden's brake (see Trans. Amer. Soc. Eng. vol. xi.) the resistance is obtained by turning a cast iron disk against the frictional resistance of two thin copper plates, which are held in a casing free to turn upon the shaft, and are so arranged that the pressure between the rubbing surfaces is controlled, and the heat developed by friction carried away, by the regulated flow of water through the casing. The torque required to hold the casing still against the action of the disk measures the torque exerted by the shaft to which the disk is keyed.
The essential part of many transmission dynamometers is a spring whose deformation indirectly measures the magnitude of the force transmitted through it. For many kinds of spring the change of form is practically proportional to the force, but the relation should always be determined experimentally. General A. J. Morin (see Notice sur divers appareils dynamometriques, Paris, 1841), in his classical experiments on traction, arranged his appar atus so that the change in form of the spring was continuously recorded on a sheet of paper drawn under a style. For longer experiments he used a " Compteur " or mechanical integrator, suggested by J. V. Poncelet, from which the work done during a given displacement could be read off directly. This device consists of a roller of radius r, pressed into contact with a disk. The two are carried on a common frame, so arranged that a change in form of the spring causes a relative displacement of the disk and roller, the point of contact moving radially from or towards the centre of the disk. The radial distance x is at any instant proportional to the force acting through the spring. The angular displacement, 0, of the disk is made proportional to the displacement, s, of the point of application of the force by suitable driving gear. If do is the angular displacement of the roller corresponding to displacements, dO of the disk, and ds of the point of application of P, a, and C constants, then d4) = x _ ¢Pds = C.Pds, and therefore 4) = C f 82 Pds; that is, the angular displacement of the roller measures the work done during the displacement from s 1 to s 2 . The shaft carrying the roller is connected to a counter so that 4 may be observed. The angular velocity of the shaft is proportional to the rate of working. Morin's dynamometer is shown in fig. 6. The transmitting spring is made up of two flat bars linked at their ends. Their centres s l, s2, are held respectively by the pieces A, B, which together form a sliding pair. The block A carries the disk D, B carries the roller R and counting gear. The pulley E is driven from an axle of the carriage. In a dynamometer used by F. W. Webb to measure the tractive resistance of trains on the London & North-Western railway, a tractive pull or push compresses two spiral springs by a definite amount, which is recorded to scale by a pencil on a sheet of paper, drawn continuously from a storage drum at the rate of 3 in. per mile, by a roller driven from one of the carriage axles. Thus the diagram shows the tractive force at any instant. A second pencil electrically connected to a clock traces a time line on the diagram with a kick at every thirty seconds. A third pencil traces an observation line in which a kick can be made at will by pressing any one of the electrical pushes placed about the car, and a fourth draws a datum line. The spring of the dynamometer car used by W. Dean on the Great Western railway is made up of thirty flat plates, 7 ft. 6 in. long, 5 in. X tin. at the centre, spaced by distance pieces nibbed into the plates at the centre and by rollers at the ends. The draw-bar is connected to the buckle, which is carried on rollers, the ends of the spring resting J on plates fixed to the under-frame. The gear operating the paper roll is driven from the axle of an inde pendent wheel which is let down into contact with the rail when required This wheel serves also to measure the distance travelled. A Morin disk and roller integrator is connected with the apparatus, so that the work done during a journey may be read off. Five lines are traced on the diagram.
In spring dynamometers designed to measure a transmitted torque, the mechanical problem of ascertaining the change of form of the spring is complicated by the fact that the spring and the whole apparatus are rotating together. In the Ayrton and Perry transmission dynamometer or spring coupling of this type, FIG. 5.
S, B `u' E FIG. 6.
the relative angular displacement is proportional to the radius of the circle described by the end of a light lever operated by mechanism between the spring-connected parts. By a device used by W. E. Dalby (Proc. Inst.C.E. 1897-1898, p. 132) the change in form of the spring is shown on a fixed indicator, which may be placed in any convenient position. Two equal sprocket wheels Q 1 ,Q 2, are fastened, the one to the spring pulley, the other to the shaft. An endless band is placed over them to form two loops, which during rotation remain at the same distance apart, unless relative angular displacement occurs between Qi and Q 2 (fig. 7) due to a change in form 2 of the spring. The change in the distance d is proportional to the change in the torque transmitted from the shaft to the pulley. ' To measure this, guide pulleys are placed in the loops guided by a geometric slide, the one pulley carrying a scale, and the other an index. A recording drum or integrating apparatus may be arranged on the pulley frames. Aquickvariation, or a periodic variation of the magnitude of the force or torque transmitted through the springs, tends to set up oscillations, and this tendency increases FIG. 7. the nearer the periodic time of the force variation approaches a periodic time of the spring. Such vibrations may be damped out to a considerable extent by the use of a dash-pot, or may be practically prevented by using a relatively stiff spring.
Every part of a machine transmitting force suffers elastic defor mation, and the force may be measured indirectly by measuring the deformation. The relation between the two should in all cases be found experimentally. G. A. Hirn (see Les Pandynamometres, Paris, 1876) employed this principle to measure the torque trans mitted by a shaft. Signor Rosio used a telephonic method to effect the same end, and mechanical, optical and telephonic devices have been utilized by the Rev. F. J. Jervis-Smith. (See Phil. Mag. February 1898.) H. Frahm,' during an important investigation on the torsional vibration of propeller shafts, measured the relative angular displacement of two flanges on a propeller shaft, selected as far apart as possible, by means of an electrical device (Engineering, 6th of February 1903). These measurements were utilized in combination with appropriate elastic coefficients of the material to find the horse-power transmitted from the engines along the shaft to the propeller. In this way the effective horse-power and also the mechanical efficiency of a number of large marine engines, each of several thousand horse-power, have been determined.
When a belt, in which the maximum and minimum tensions are respectively P and p lb, drives a pulley, the torque exerted FIG. 8.
is (P - p)r lb ft., r being the radius of the - pulley plus half the thickness of the belt. P and p may be measured directly by leading the belt round two freely hanging guide pulleys, one in the tight, the other in the slack part of the belt, and adjusting loads on them until a stable condition of running is obtained. In W. Froude's belt dynamometer (see Proc. Inst.M.E., 1858) (fig. 8) the guide pulleys G1, G2 are carried upon an arm free to turn about the axis 0. H is a pulley to guide the approaching and receding parts of the belt to and from the beam in parallel directions. Neglecting friction, the ' H. Frahm, " Neue Untersuchungen fiber die dynamischen Vorgange in den Wellenleitungen von Schiffsmaschinen mit besonderer Beriicksichtigung der Resonanzschwingungen," Zeitschrift des Vereins deutscher Ingenieure, 31 st May 1902.
unbalanced torque acting on the beam is 4r11) - p} lb ft. If a force Q acting at R maintains equilibrium, QR/4 = (P - p)r =T. Q is supplied by a spring, the extensions of which are recorded on a drum driven proportionally to the angular displacement of the driving pulley; thus a work diagram is obtained. In the Farcot form the guide pulleys are attached to separate weighing levers placed horizontally below the apparatus. In a belt dynamometer built for the Franklin Institute from the designs of Tatham, the weighing levers are separate and arranged horizontally at the top of the apparatus. The weighing beam in the Hefner-Alteneck dynamometer is placed transversely to the belt (see Electrotechnischen Zeitschrift, 1881, 7). The force Q, usually measured by a spring, required to maintain the beam in its central position is proportional to (P - p). If the angle 0 1 =0 2 =120 0 , Q = (P - p) neglecting friction.
When a shaft is driven by means of gearing the driving torque is measured by the product of the resultant pressure P acting between the wheel teeth and the radius of the pitch circle of the wheel fixed to the shaft. Fig. 9, which has been reproduced from J. White's A New Century of Inventions (Manchester, 1822), illustrates possibly the earliest application of this principle to dynamometry. The wheel D, keyed to the shaft overcoming the resistance to be measured, is driven from wheel N by two bevel wheels L, L, carried in a loose pulley K. The two shafts, though in a line, are independent. A torque applied to the shaft A can be transmitted to D, neglecting friction, without change only if the central pulley K is held from turning; the torque required to do this is twice the torque transmitted.
The torque acting on the armature of an electric motor is necessarily accompanied by an equal and opposite torque acting on the FIG. 9. frame. If, therefore, the motor is mounted on a cradle free to turn about knife-edges, the reacting torque is the only torque tending to turn the cradle when it is in a vertical position, and may therefore be measured by adjusting weights to hold the cradle in a vertical position. The rate at which the motor is transmitting work is then 550 H.P., where n is the revolutions per second of the armature. 550 See James Dredge, Electric Illumination, vol. ii. (London, 1885); W. W. Beaumont, " Dynamometers and Friction Brakes," Proc. Inst.C.E. vol. xcv. (London, 1889); E. Brauer, " Ober Bremsdynamometer and verwandte Kraftmesser," Zeitschrift des Vereins deutscher Ingenieure (Berlin, 1888); J. J. Flather, Dynamometers and the Measurement of Power (New York, 1893). (W. E. D.)